QA and software testing interview questions

1) What is the difference between the QA and software testing?

The role of QA (Quality Assurance) is to monitor the quality of the process to produce a quality of a product. While the software testing, is the process of ensuring the final product and check the functionality of final product and to see whether the final product meets the user’s requirement.

2) What is Testware?

Testware is the subset of software, which helps in performing the testing of application. It is a term given to the combination of software application and utilities which is required for testing a software package.

3) What is the difference between build and release?

Build: It is a number given to Installable software that is given to testing team by the development team.

Release: It is a number given to Installable software that is handed over to customer by the tester or developer.

4) What are the automation challenges that QA team faces while testing?

Exploitation of automation tool
Frequency of use of test case
Reusability of Automation script
Adaptability of test case for automation

5) What is bug leakage and bug release?

Bug release is when software or an application is handed over to the testing team knowing that the defect is present in a release. During this the priority and severity of bug is low, as bug can be removed before the final handover.

Bug leakage is something, when the bug is discovered by the end users or customer, and missed by the testing team to detect, while testing the software.

QA Interview Questions


6) What is data driven testing?

Data driven testing is an automation testing part, which tests the output or input values. These values are read directly from the data files. The data files may include csv files, excel files, data pools and many more. It is performed when the values are changing by the time.

7) Explain the steps for Bug Cycle?

Once the bug is identified by the tester, it is assigned to the development manager in open status
If the bug is a valid defect the development team will fix it and if it is not a valid defect, the defect will be ignored and marked as rejected
The next step will be to check whether it is in scope, if it is happen so that, the bug is not the part of the current release then the defects are postponed
If the defect or bug is raised earlier then the tester will assigned a DUPLICATE status
When bug is assigned to developer to fix, it will be given a IN-PROGRESS status
Once the defect is repaired, the status will changed to FIXED at the end the tester will give CLOSED status if it passes the final test.

8) What does the test strategy include?

The test strategy includes introduction, resource, scope and schedule for test activities, test tools, test priorities, test planning and the types of test that has to be performed.

9) Mention the different types of software testing?

Unit testing
Integration testing and regression testing
Shakeout testing
Smoke testing
Functional testing
Performance testing
White box and Black box testing
Alpha and Beta testing
Load testing and stress testing
System testing

10) What is branch testing and what is boundary testing?

The testing of all the branches of the application, which is tested once, is known as branch testing. While the testing, which is focused on the limit conditions of the software is known as boundary testing.

11) What are the contents in test plans and test cases?

Testing objectives
Testing scope
Testing the frame
The environment
Reason for testing
The criteria for entrance and exit
Risk factors

12) What is Agile testing and what is the importance of Agile testing?

Agile testing is software testing, which involves the testing of the software from the customer point of view. The importance of this testing is that, unlike normal testing process, this testing does not wait for development team to complete the coding first and then doing testing. The coding and testing both goes simultaneously. It requires continuous customer interaction.

It works on SDLC ( Systems Development Life Cycle) methodologies, it means that the task is divided into different segments and compiled at the end of the task.

13) What is Test case?

Test case is a specific term that is used to test a specific element. It has information of test steps, prerequisites, test environment and outputs.

14) What is the strategy for Automation Test Plan?

The strategy for Automation Test Plan
Preparation of Automation Test Plan
Recording the scenario
Error handler incorporation
Script enhancement by inserting check points and looping constructs
Debugging the script and fixing the issues
Rerunning the script
Reporting the result

15) What is quality audit?

The systematic and independent examination for determining the quality of activities is known as quality audit. It allows the cross check for the planned arrangements, whether they are properly implemented or not.

16) How does a server or client environment affect software testing?

As the dependencies on the clients are more, the client or server applications are complex.

The testing needs are extensive as servers, communications and hardware are interdependent. Integration and system testing is also for a limited period of time.

17) What are the tools used by a tester while testing?

YSlow for FireBug
Web Developer toolbar for firebox

18) Explain stress testing, load testing and volume testing?

Load Testing: Testing an application under heavy but expected load is known as Load Testing. Here, the load refers to the large volume of users, messages, requests, data, etc.
Stress Testing: When the load placed on the system is raised or accelerated beyond the normal range then it is known as Stress Testing.
Volume Testing: The process of checking the system, whether the system can handle the required amounts of data, user requests, etc. is known as Volume Testing.

19) What are the five common solutions for software developments problems?

Setting up the requirements criteria, the requirements of a software should be complete, clear and agreed by all
The next thing is the realistic schedule like time for planning , designing, testing, fixing bugs and re-testing
Adequate testing, start the testing immediately after one or more modules development.
Use rapid prototype during design phase so that it can be easy for customers to find what to expect
Use of group communication tools

20) What is a ‘USE’ case and what does it include?

The document that describes, the user action and system response, for a particular functionality is known as USE case. It includes revision history, table of contents, flow of events, cover page, special requirements, pre-conditions and post-conditions.

21) What is CRUD testing and how to test CRUD?

CRUD testing is another name for Black Box testing. CRUD stands for Create, Read, Update and Delete.

22) What is validation and verification in software testing?

In verification, all the key aspects of software developments are taken in concern like code, specifications, requirements and document plans. Verification is done on the basis of four things list of issues, checklist, walkthroughs and inspection meetings. Following verification, validation is done, it involves actual testing, and all the verification aspects are checked thoroughly in validation.

23) What is thread testing?

A thread testing is a top-down testing, where the progressive integration of components follows the implementation of subsets of the requirements, as opposed to the integration of components by successively lower levels.

24) What is configuration management?

It is a process to control and document any changes made during the life of a project. Release control, Change control and Revision control are the important aspects of configuration management.

25) What is Ad Hoc testing?

It is a testing phase where the tester tries to break the system by randomly trying the system’s functionality. It can include negative testing as well.

) What is data-base testing? Data base testing is segmented into four different categories.

Testing of Data Integrity
Testing of Data Validity
Data base related performance
Testing of functions, procedure and triggers

2) In database testing, what do we need to check normally?

Normally, the things that we check in database testing are:

Constraint Check
Validation of a Field size
Stored procedure
Matching application field size to database
Indexes for performance based issues

3) Explain what is data driven test?

In a data-table, to test the multi numbers of data, data-driven test is used. By using this it can easily replace the parameters at the same time from different locations.

4) What are joins and mention different types of joins?

Join is used to display two or more than two table and the types of joins are:

Natural Join
Inner Join
Outer Join
Cross Join

The outer join is divided again in two:

Left outer join
Right outer join

5) What are indexes and mention different types of indexes?

Indexes are database objects and they are created on columns. To fetch data quickly they are frequently accessed. Different types of indexes are:

B-Tree index
Bitmap index
Clustered index
Covering index
Non-unique index
Unique index

Database Testing


6) While testing stored procedures what are the steps does a tester takes?

The tester will check the standard format of the stored procedures and also it checks the fields are correct like updates, joins, indexes, deletions as mentioned in the stored procedure.

7) How would you know for database testing, whether trigger is fired or not?

On querying the common audit log you would know, whether, a trigger is fired or not. It is in audit log where you can see the triggers fired.

8) In data base testing, what are the steps to test data loading?

Following steps need to follow to test data loading

Source data should be known
Target data should be known
Compatibility of source and target should be checked
In SQL Enterprise manager, run the DTS package after opening the corresponding DTS package
You have to compare the columns of target and data source
Number of rows of target and source should be checked
After updating data in the source, check whether the changes appears in the target or not.
Check NULLs and junk characters

9) Without using Database Checkpoints, how you test a SQL Query in QTP?

By writing scripting procedure in VBScript, we can connect to database and can test the queries and database.

10) Explain how to use SQL queries in QTP ?

In QTP using output database check point and database check, you have to select the SQL manual queries option. After selecting the manual queries option, enter the “select” queries to fetch the data in the database and then compare the expected and actual.

11) What is the way of writing testcases for database testing?

Writing a testcases is like functional testing. First you have to know the functional requirement of the application. Then you have to decide the parameters for writing testcases like

Objective: Write the objective that you would like to test
Input method: Write the method of action or input you want to execute
Expected: how it should appear in the database

12) To manage and manipulate the test table what are the SQL statements that you have used in Database testing?

The statements like SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE are used to manipulate the table, while ALTER TABLE, CREATE TABLE and DELETE TABLE are used to manage table.

13) How to test database procedures and triggers?

To test database procedures and triggers, input and output parameters must be known. EXEC statement can be used to run the procedure and examine the behaviour of the tables.

Open the database project in solution explorer
Now in View menu, click the database schema
Open the project folder from schema View menu
Right click on the object that has to be tested, and then click on the dialog box that says Create Unit Tests
After that create a new language test project
Select either a) Insert the unit test or b) Create a new test and then click OK
Project that has to be configured will be done by clicking on the Project Configuration dialog box.
Once it configured click on OK

14) How you can write testcases from requirements and do the requirements represents exact functionality of AUT (Application Under Test)?

To write a testcases from requirements, you need to analyse the requirements thoroughly in terms of functionality. Thereafter you think about the appropriate testcases design techniques like Equivalence partitioning, Black box design, Cause effect graphing etc. for writing the testcases.
Yes, the requirements represent exact functionality of AUT.

15) What is DBMS?

DBMS stand for Database management system, there are different types of DBMS

Network Model
Hierarchical Model
Relational Model

16) What is DML?

DML stands for Data Manipulation Language, It is used to manage data with schema objects. It is a subset of SQL.

17) What are DCL commands? What are the two types of commands used by DCL?

DCL stands for Data Control Language, it is used to control data.

The two types of DCL Commands are:

Grant: By using this command user can access privilege to database

Revoke: By using this command user cannot access the database

18) What is white box testing and black box testing?

Black box testing means testing the software for the outputs on giving particular inputs. This testing is usually performed to see if the software meets the user’s requirements. There is no specific functional output expected for running this test.

The white box testing is done to check the accuracy of code and logic of the program. This testing is done by the programmer who knows the logical flow of the system.

19) How does QTP evaluate test results?

Once the testing is done, QTP will generate a report. This report will show the checkpoints, system message and error that were detected while testing. The test results window will show any mismatches encountered at the checkpoints.

20) Explain the QTP testing process?

QTP testing process is based on following steps:
Creating GUI (Graphical User Interface) Map files : Identifies the GUI object which has to be tested
Creating test scripts: Test scripts are recorded
Debug tests: Test should be debugged
Run tests: Testcases should be run.
View results: The results reflects the success or failure of the tests
Report detects: If the test is failed, the reasons will be recorded in the report detect file

21) What is load testing and give some examples of it?

To measure the system response, load testing is done. If the load exceeds the users pattern it is known as stress testing. Examples of load testing are downloading the set of large files, executing multiple applications on a single computer, subjecting a server to large number of e-mails and allotting many tasks to a printer one after another.

22) How to test database manually?

Testing the database manually involves checking the data at the back end and to see whether the addition of data in front end is affecting the back end or not, and same for delete, update, insert etc.

23) What RDBMS stands for and what are the important RDMBS that SQL use?

RDBMS stands for Relational Database Management Systems that use SQL, and the important RDBMS that SQL uses are Sybase, Oracle, Access ,Ingres, Microsoft SQL server etc.

24) What is performance testing and what are the bottlenecks of performance testing?

Performance testing determines the speed of the computer system performance. It includes the quantitative tests like response time measurement. The problem in performance testing is that you always need a well-trained and experienced man power also the tools you use are expensive.

25) What is DDL and what are their commands?

To define database structure, DDL is used. DDL stands for Data Definition Language. The various DDL commands include Create, Truncate, Drop, Alter, Comment and Rename.


What is the difference between Functional and Non-functional testing?

Functional Testing covers:
• Unit Testing
• Smoke testing / Sanity testing
• Integration Testing (Top Down, Bottom up Testing)
• Interface & Usability Testing
• System Testing
• Regression Testing
• Pre User Acceptance Testing(Alpha & Beta)
• User Acceptance Testing
• White Box & Black Box Testing
• Globalization & Localization Testing

Non-Functional Testing covers:
• Load and Performance Testing
• Ergonomics Testing
• Stress & Volume Testing
• Compatibility & Migration Testing
• Data Conversion Testing
• Security / Penetration Testing
• Operational Readiness Testing
• Installation Testing
• Security Testing (Application Security, Network Security, System Security)